Minggu, 15 Desember 2013

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi: Chapter 10

Dicky Almoedir Pitra (1701316292)
Student Assignments 11: Pages 524-525 of textbook Discovering Computers

1. What Is a Database, and How Does a Database Interact with Data and Information?
A database is a collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data. Database software, often called a database management system (DBMS), allows users to create a computerized database; add, modify, and delete the data; sort and retrieve the data; and create forms and reports from the data. Data is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video. Computers process data into information. Information is processed data; that is, it is organized, meaningful, and useful. In addition to documents, information can be in the form of audio, images, and video.

2. What Is Data Integrity, and What Are the Qualities of Valuable Information?
Because data is used to generate information, many organizations realize that data is one of their more valuable assets. Data integrity identifies the quality of data. Data integrity is important because computers and people use information to make decisions and take actions. For a computer to produce correct information, the data that is entered in a database must have integrity. For information to be valuable, it should be accurate, verifiable, timely, organized, accessible, useful, and cost-effective. Accurate information is error free. Verifiable information can be proven as correct or incorrect. Timely information has an age suited to its use. Organized information is arranged to suit the needs and requirements of the decision maker. Accessible information is available when the decision maker needs it. Useful information has meaning to the person who receives it. Cost-effective information should give more value than it costs to produce.

Sabtu, 14 Desember 2013

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi: Chapter 9

Dicky Almoedir Pitra (1701316292)
Student Assignments 10: Pages 500-501 of textbook Discovering Computers

1. What Is the Purpose of the Components Required for Successful Communications, and What Are Various Sending and Receiving Devices?
Computer communications describes a process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information. Successful communications requires a sending device that initiates a transmission instruction, a communications device that connects the sending device to a communications channel, a communications channel on which the data travels, a communications device that connects the communications channel to a receiving device, and a receiving device that accepts the transmission of data, instructions, or information. All types of computers and mobile devices serve as sending and receiving devices in a communications system.

2. How Are Computer Communications Used?
Communications technologies include blogs, chat rooms, e-mail, fax, FTP, instant messaging, newsgroups, RSS, video conferencing, VoIP, Web, Web folders, and wikis. Users can send and receive wireless messages to and from smart phones, cell phones, handheld game consoles, and other mobile devices using text messaging, picture messaging and video messaging, and wireless instant messaging. People connect wirelessly to the Internet through a wireless Internet access point. A hot spot is a wireless network that provides Internet connections to mobile computers and devices. A cybercaf√© is a coffeehouse, restaurant, or other location that provides computers with Internet access. A global positioning system (GPS) analyzes signals sent by satellites to determine an earth-based receiver’s geographic location. Many software products provide a means to collaborate, or work online with other users connected to a server. Groupware is software that helps groups of people work on projects or share information over a network. Voice mail allows someone to leave a voice message for one or more people. Web services describe standardized software that enables programmers to create applications that communicate with other remote computers.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi: Chapter 8

Dicky Almoedir Pitra (1701316292)
Student Assignments 9: Pages 432-433 of textbook Discovering Computers

1. What Is System Software, and What Are the Two Types of System Software?
System software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices. Two types of system software are operating systems and utility programs. An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources. A utility program, also called a utility, performs maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.

2. What Are the Functions of an Operating System?
The operating system starts and shuts down a computer, provides a user interface, manages programs, manages memory, coordinates tasks, configures devices, establishes an Internet connection, monitors performance, provides utilities, updates automatically, controls a network, and administers security. The user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information is displayed on the screen. Two types of user interfaces are a graphical user interface (GUI) and a command-line interface. Managing programs refers to how many users, and how many programs, an operating system can support at one time. An operating system can be single user/single tasking, single user/multitasking, multiuser, or multiprocessing. Memory management optimizes the use of random access memory (RAM). If memory is insufficient, the operating system may use virtual memory, which allocates a portion of a storage medium to function as additional RAM. Coordinating tasks determines the order in which tasks are processed. Tasks include receiving data from an input device, processing instructions, sending information to an output device, and transferring items between storage and memory. Configuring devices involves loading each device’s driver when a user boots the computer. A driver, short for device driver, is a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device. Establishing an Internet connection sets up a connection between a computer and an Internet access provider. A performance monitor is an operating system program that assesses and reports information about computer resources and devices. Operating systems often provide the capability of managing and searching for fi les, viewing images, securing a computer from unauthorized access, uninstalling programs, and other tasks. Most operating systems also include an automatic update feature that provides updates to the program. A server operating system is an operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple user’s access and share network resources. Network administrators typically have an administrator account that enables them to access fi les, install programs, and specify network settings, including creating user accounts and establishing permissions.

Jumat, 13 Desember 2013

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi: Chapter 7

Dicky Almoedir Pitra (1701316292)
Student Assignments 8: Pages 384-385 of textbook Discovering Computers

1. How Are Storage Devices Different from Storage Media?
A storage medium is the physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information. The number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold is its capacity. A storage device is the computer hardware that records and/or retrieves items to and from storage media. Writing is the process of transferring items from memory to a storage medium, and reading is the process of transferring these items from a storage medium into memory.

2. What Are the Characteristics of an Internal Hard Disk?
A hard disk, also called a hard disk drive or hard drive, is a storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information. Traditionally, hard disks stored data using longitudinal recording, which aligned the magnetic particles horizontally. With perpendicular recording, hard disks align the particles vertically, making much greater storage capacities possible. The capacity of a hard disk is determined from whether it uses longitudinal or perpendicular recording, the number of platters it contains, and the composition of the magnetic coating on the platters. A platter is made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic and is coated with a material that allows items to be recorded magnetically on its surface. Each platter has two read/write heads, one for each side. The location of a read/write head often is referred to by its cylinder, which is the vertical section of a track that passes through all platters. Formatting is the process of dividing the disk into tracks and sectors. A track is a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of the disk. The disk’s storage locations are divided into pie-shaped sections, which break the tracks into small arcs called sectors. While the computer is running, the platters in the hard disk rotate at 5,400 to 15,000 revolutions per minute (rpm), which allows nearly instant access to all tracks and sectors on the platters. Transfer rate is the speed with which data, instructions, and information transfer to and from a storage device. Access time measures the amount of time it takes a storage device to locate an item on a storage medium, or the time required to deliver an item from memory to the processor.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi: Chapter 6

Dicky Almoedir Pitra (1701316292)
Student Assignments 7: Pages 332-333 of textbook Discovering Computers

1. What Are the Four Types of Output?
Output is data that has been processed into a useful form. Computers process data (input) into information (output). Four categories of output are text, graphics, audio, and video. An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people. Commonly used output devices include display devices; printers; speakers, headphones, and earbuds; data projectors; interactive whiteboards; and force-feedback game controllers and tactile output.

2. What Are the Characteristics of Various Display Devices?
A display device, or simply display, is an output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information and consists of a screen and the components that produce the information on the screen. Desktop computers typically use a monitor as their display device; most mobile computers and devices integrate the display into the same physical case. LCD monitors, LCD screens, and plasma monitors are types of flat-panel displays. A flatpanel display is a lightweight display device with a shallow depth that typically uses LCD or gas plasma technology. An LCD monitor is a desktop monitor that uses a liquid crystal display to produce images. A plasma monitor is a display device that uses gas plasma technology, which substitutes a layer of gas for the liquid crystal material in an LCD monitor. A CRT monitor is a desktop monitor that contains a cathode-ray tube (CRT). CRT monitors take up more desk space and thus are not used much today.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi: Chapter 5

Dicky Almoedir Pitra (1701316292)
Student Assignments 6: Pages 290-291 of textbook Discovering Computers

1. What is input, and what are the differences among a program, a command, and a user response?

Input is any data or instructions entered into the memory of a computer, to provide or give something to the computer, in other words the state or act of a computer or a component of computer or relevant device being accepting something from the user or from a device or from a software either automatically or manually.
Programs respond to commands that a user issues. A command is an instruction that causes a program to perform a specific action. Users issue commands by pressing keys on the keyboard, clicking a mouse button, speaking into a microphone, or touching an area on a screen.
A program is a series of related instructions that tells a computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them. It is a sequence of instructions, written to perform a specified task with a computer.
A user response is an instruction a user issues by replying to a question displayed by a program. A response to the question instructs the program to perform certain actions.

Kamis, 12 Desember 2013

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi: Chapter 4

Dicky Almoedir Pitra (1701316292)
Student Assignments 5: Pages 244-245 of textbook Discovering Computers

1. How Are Various Styles of System Units on Desktop Computers, Notebook Computers, and Mobile Devices Different?
The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data. System units are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. The case of the system unit, sometimes called the chassis, is made of metal or plastic and protects the internal electronic components from damage. All computers and mobile devices have a system unit . On desktop personal computers, the electronic components and most storage devices are part of the system unit. Other devices, such as the keyboard, mouse, microphone, monitor, printer, USB flash drive, scanner, Web cam, and speakers normally occupy space outside the system unit. An all-in-one desktop personal computer is an exception, which houses the monitor and the system unit in the same case. The trend is toward a smaller form factor, or size and shape, of the desktop personal computer system unit. On most notebook computers, including netbooks, the keyboard and pointing device often occupy the area on the top of the system unit, and the display attaches to the system unit by hinges. The location of the system unit on a Tablet PC varies, depending on the design of the Tablet PC. With the slate Tablet PC , which typically does not include a keyboard, the system unit is behind the display. On a convertible Tablet PC , by contrast, the system unit is positioned below a keyboard, providing functionality similar to a traditional notebook computer or netbook. The difference is the display attaches to the system unit with a swivel-type hinge, which enables a user to rotate the display and fold it down over the keyboard to look like a slate Tablet PC. The system unit on an Ultra-Mobile PC, a smart phone, and a PDA usually consumes the entire device. On these mobile computers and devices, the display often is built into the system unit. With game consoles, the input and output devices, such as controllers and a television, reside outside the system unit. On handheld game consoles, portable media players, and digital cameras, by contrast, the packaging around the system unit houses the input devices and display.